مقاله ترجمه: فرهنگ شغلی پلیس تا چه حد بر زندگی اجتماعی و خانوادگی افسران پلیس تأثیر می‌گذارد؟

نویسنده

دانشیار زبان شناسی، هیأت علمی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

چکیده

از زمان استقرار نیروی جدید پلیس در سال 1829، تحقیقات بسیاری درباره تأثیر فرهنگ پلیس بر واکنش­های شناختی و رفتاری پلیس انجام شده است. این مقاله به دنبال نگرش جامع­تری بر فرهنگ پلیس با بحث درباره محدوده تاثیر آن، نه تنها در محیط شغلی بلکه بر زندگی اجتماعی و خانوادگی افسران پلیس است. در این مقاله، متون مربوط به فرهنگ پلیس و تأثیرات شغلی پلیس بر روی زندگی اجتماعی و خانوادگی بازبینی می­شود. با اتخاذ رویکرد کیفی و استفاده از مصاحبه­های نیمه­ساختاریافته، تحلیل می­شود که تا چه اندازه می­توان دریافت که فرهنگ پلیس بر روی زندگی افسران پلیس تأثیر می­گذارد. این مقاله با این پیشنهاد به اتمام می­رسد که مطالعات مقیاس بزرگ در این زمینه می­تواند به منظور ایجاد دیدگاه جامع­تر در مورد تأثیرات گسترده فرهنگ پلیس در داخل و خارج محیط کاری، سودمند باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

To What Extent Does Police Occupational Culture Impact on The Social and Domestic Lives of Police Officers?

چکیده [English]

Since the establishment of the new police service in 1829 there has been much research in to the influence of police-culture on the cognitive and behavioural responses of police officers. This article seeks to take a more expansive view of police occupational culture by discussing the extent to which it has an impact, not only within the occupational environment but furthermore on the social and domestic lives of police officers. This research has reviewed the literature surrounding police culture and the occupational impacts of policing on domestic and social life. By adopting a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews, it analyses the extent to which police culture can be seen to impact on the lives of police officers. It concludes by suggesting that a larger scale study in this area may be beneficial in order to create a more comprehensive view of the extensive impacts of police culture both inside and outside the occupational environment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Police Culture
  • police occupational culture
  • police personality
 

References

Adlam, K. and Gudjonsson, G. (1983) ‘Personality Patterns of British police officers’, Personality and Individual Differences, 4, 507-512.

Agnew, R. (1992) ‘Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency’, Criminology, 31, 47-87.

Banton, M. (1964) ‘The Policeman in the Community’, London: Tavistock.

Brain, T. (2010) ‘A History of Policing in England and Wales from 1974: A Turbulent Journey’, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brodeur, JP. (2010) ‘The Policing Web’, New York: Oxford University Press.

Brown, L. And Durrheim, K. (2009) ‘Different Kinds of Knowing: Generating Qualitative Data through Mobile Interviewing’, Qualitative inquiry, 15, 911-930.

Bryman, A. (2008) ‘Social Research Methods’ Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Carpenter, B. and Raza, S. (1987) ‘Personality characteristics of police applicants: Comparisons across subgroups and with other populations’, Journal of Police Science and Administration, 15, 10-17.

Chan, J. (1996) ‘Changing Police Culture’, British Journal of Criminology, 36, 110-134.

Dantzer, M. (1987) ‘Police related stress: A critique for future research’, Journal of Police Criminal Psychology, 3, 43-48.

Davies, A. and Thomas, R. (2002) ‘A Gendered Analysis of New Policing Identities’, Academy and Management Proceedings & Membership Directory 2002, A1-A6.

Davies, P., Francis, P. and Jupp, V. (2011) ‘Doing Criminological Research’, London: SAGE.

Denscombe, M. (2007) ‘The Good Research Guide: for small scale research projects’, Berkshire: Open University Press.

Evans, B., Coman, G., Stanley, R. and Burrows, G. (1993) ‘Police officers' coping strategies: An Australian police survey’, Stress Medicine, 9, 237-246.

Flanagan, R. (2008) ‘The Review of Policing: Final Report’, London: Home Office.

Flick, U. (2009) ‘An Introduction to Qualitative Research’, Los Angeles: SAGE.

Gilbert, N. (2001) ‘Researching Social Life’, London: SAGE.

Gold, R. (1958) ‘Roles in Sociological Fieldwork’, Social Forces, 36, 217-223.

Hanewicz, W. (1978) ‘Police personality: A Jungian perspective’, Crime and Delinquency, 24, 152-172.

Haarr, R. and Morash, M. (1999) ‘Gender, race, and strategies of coping with occupational stress in policing’, Justice Quarterly, 16, 304-332.

Hein, J., Evans, J. and Jones, P. (2008) ‘Mobile Methodologies: Theory, Technology and Practice’, Geography Compass, 2/5, 1266-1285.

Holdaway, S. (1983) ‘Inside the British Police Force: A Force at Work’, Oxford: Blackwell.

Janowitz, M. (1964) ‘The Professional Solider: A Social and Political Portrait’, New York: The Free Press of Glencoe.

Johnson, L., Todd, M. and Subramanian, G. (2005) ‘Violence in Police Families: Work-Family Spillover’, Journal of Family Violence, 20, 3-12.

Kusenbach, M. (2003) ‘Street Phenomenology: The go-along as ethnographic research tool’, SAGE, 4, 455-485.

Lofland, J. (1971) ‘Analysing Social Settings’, Belmont: Wadsworth.

Lofland, J. and Lofland, L. (1995) ‘Analysing Social Settings: A Guide to Qualitative Observation and Analysis’, Belmont Calif: Wadsworth.

Loftus, B. (2010) ‘Police occupational culture: classic themes, altered times’, Policing and Society, 20, 1-20.

Manning, P. (1989), 'Occupational Culture'. In: Bailey, W.G. (ed.) ‘The Encyclopedia of Police Science’, London: Garland.

McLaughlin, E. and Muncie, J. (eds.) (2001) ‘Controlling Crime’, London: Sage Publications.

Metcalfe, B. and Dick, G. (2000) ‘Is the force still with you? Measuring police commitment’, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15, 812 – 832.

Metropolitan Police, (2010) ‘MET Careers in London’ [online], available at: http://www.metpolicecareers.co.uk/index.html (Accessed: 29 November 2011).

National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA) (2011) ‘Criminal Justice and Local Policing Unit’, London: NPIA [online] Available at:

http://www.neighbourhoodpolicing.co.uk/home.aspx (Accessed 18 December 2011).

Newburn, T. (2003) ‘Handbook of Policing’, Devon: Willan.

Patterson, G. (2003) ‘Examining the effects of coping and social support on work and life stress among police officers’, Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 215-226.

Porter, L., Steers, R., Mowday, R. and Boulian, P. (1974), ‘Organisation commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover amongst psychiatric technicians’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 5, 603-9.

Punch, M. (1994) ‘Politics and Ethics in Qualitative Research’, in: Denzin, N. and

Lincoln, Y. (1994) ‘The Handbook of Qualitative Research’, Thousand Oaks CA: SAGE.

Reiner, R. (1985) ‘The Politics of the Police’, London: Wheatsheaf.

Reiner, R. (1992) ‘The Politics of the Police’, (2nd edn.) London: Wheatsheaf.

Reiner. R. (2000) ‘The Politics of the Police’ (3rd edn.), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Robinson, H., Sigman, M. and Wilson, J. (1997) ‘Duty-related stressors and

PTSD symptoms in suburban police officers’, Psychol Rep, 81, 835-845.

Scaramella, G., Cox, S. and McCamey, W. (2011) ‘Introduction to Policing’, CA: Sage.

Sheller, M. and Urry, J. (2006) ‘The new mobilities paradigm’, Environment and Planning, 38, 207-226.

Skolnick, J. (1966) ‘Justice Without trial: law enforcement in democratic society’, New York: Macmillan.

Stenner, P. (2009) ‘Review of Police Occupational Culture New Debates and Directions . Edited by M. O’Neill , M. Marks and A.-M. Singh’, British Journal of Criminology, 49, 916-937.

Swatt, M., Gibson, C. and Piquero, N. (2007) ‘Exploring the utility of general strain theory in explaining problematic alcohol consumption by police officers’, Journal of Criminal Justice, 35, 596-611.

Twersky-Glasner, A. (2005) ‘Police Personality: What is that? And why are they like that?’, Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 20, 56-67.

University of Plymouth (2012) ‘Research ethics: a policy for staff and research students’, [online] available at:

http://www.plymouth.ac.uk/files/extranet/docs/rsh/researchethicspolicy.doc, (Accessed 1 March 2012).

Van Maanen, J. (1988) ‘Tales of the Field: On writing Ethnography’, Beverley Hills: SAGE.

Waddington, P. (1993) ‘Guns won’t protect the public’ [online], The Independent on Sunday, available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/guns-wont-protect-the-1512815.html , (Accessed: 29 November 2011).

Waddington, P. (1999) ‘Police (canteen) Sub-culture’, British Journal of Criminology, 39, 287-309.

Waters, I. (2000) ‘Quality and Performance Monitoring’. In: Leishman, F., Loveday, B. and Savage, S. (eds.) ‘Core Issues in Policing’, London: Longman.

Westley, W. (1970) ‘Violence and the police: a sociological study of law, custom and morality’, Massachusetts: MIT.

Young, M. (1991) ‘An inside job: policing and police culture in Britain’, Oxford: Oxford University Press.