ترجمه: رفتار افسر پلیس: ویژگی‌های فردی افسران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار زبان شناسی، هیأت علمی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

چکیده

توضیحات فردی به تأثیر خصوصیات و ویژگی‌های خود افسران پلیس بر رفتار آنها اشاره دارد. در دهة ۱۹۶۰، تنش بین پلیس و شهروندان به شکل شورش و نافرمانی مدنی متجلی شد (واکر). در واکنش به مجموعه‌ای از کمیسیون‌های ریاست‌جمهوری، دستور داده شد تا دربارة این موضوعات تحقیق کنند. مشهورترین کمسیون که کمیسیون کرنر(Kerner) بود، علل صدها اختلال را که در اواخر دهة ۱۹۶۰ اتفاق افتاده بود، بررسی کرد. کمیسیون کرنر گزارش داد که خصومت و عدم اعتماد عمیقی بین اقلیت‌ها و پلیس وجود داشته‌است. در این گزارش، توصیه شد که استخدام بیشتری از افسران اقلیت صورت گیرد؛ همچنین، توصیه شد اقدامات و عملیات‌های پلیس به­طور قابل‌توجهی تغییر کند. به عنوان یک نتیجة مستقیم از بحران پلیس در دهة ۱۹۶۰، سازمان‌های پلیسی به دنبال استخدام افسرانی بودند که نمایندة بیشتر جوامع بودند، از جمله در پی استخدام اقلیت‌ها و زنان بیشتر بودند. علاوه بر این، به تعاقب تعیین استانداردهای بالاتر برای استخدام، همراه با بهره­مندی از فرصت‌های آموزشی فراهم‌شده از طریق LEAA (برنامه آموزش اجرای قانون)، سطح تحصیلات افسران پلیس از ۲۰ درصد افسران با مدرک دانشگاهی در سال ۱۹۶۰ به ۶۵ درصد در سال ۱۹۸۸ افزایش یافت(واکر، ص. 37).  نتایج نشان داد که بین دو گروه از نظر سن و جنس اختلاف معنی‌دار وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Police: Police Officer Behavior - Individual Characteristics of Officers

چکیده [English]

Individual explanations refer to the influence of police officers' own characteristics over their behavior. In the 1960s, tensions between police and citizens exploded in the form of riots and civil disobedience (Walker). In response, a series of presidential commissions were ordered to investigate these issues. The most famous, the Kerner Commission, investigated the causes of the hundreds of disorders that had taken place in late 1960s. The Kerner Commission reported that there was deep hostility and distrust between minorities and the police. The report recommended the hiring of more minority officers and that police practices be changed significantly. As a direct result of the police-community crisis of the 1960s, police organizations sought to hire officers that were more representative of the communities they serve, including the hiring of more minorities and women. In addition, higher standards for recruitment combined with the educational opportunities provided through the LEAA (Law Enforcement Education Program) raised the education level of police officers from 20 percent of officers with a college degree in 1960, to 65 percent in 1988 (Walker, p. 37).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • police officer
  • Behavior
  • Culture
  • minority
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